These groups have focused on the neuroscience of affiliation, aggression, fear, reproduction and memory and cognition.ÃÂ  This effort is a multi-institutional collaboration headquartered at the McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT, with managing partners at Harvard University. In the lecture entitled Sequences of random variables and their convergence we explained that different concepts of convergence are based on different ways of measuring the distance between two random variables (how "close to each other" two random variables are). To complement its research program in CPS, NSF is also exploring issues for training and education. IFRS and GAAP Convergence Name of Instructor Institution’s Name IFRS and GAAP Convergence 1.0 Introduction The General Motors Corporation (GM) is an American multinational automobile manufacturer. MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Convergence: The Future of Health. 13, 427-445. At Convergence Research, our mission is to help our clients grow by providing actionable, accurate and compliant public information research. (Available on: https://www.nsf.gov/crssprgm/nano/reports/MCR_11-0201_JNR13_NNI+at+10+years_11051_2010_192_print.pdf), Roco, M.C., C.A. NNI cumulatively totals over $22 billion since the inception of the NNI in 2001. Hersam, “Nanotechnology Research Directions for Societal Needs in 2020”, Springer, 2011, 600p. American Association for the Advancement of Science. The center brought an identity, credibility, and expansion to the field of behavioral neuroscience, and in the process created a brand name.”  Convergence research is a means of solving vexing research problems, in particular, complex problems focusing on societal needs. Edited by Sharp, Hockfield, and Jacks. The Center for Emergent Behavior of Integrated Cellular Systems ’ mission is to create a new scientific discipline for building living, multi-cellular machines that solve real world problems in health, security, and the environment. , NSF Investments in Nanotechnology  The Center is working to create a new field, the Science and Engineering of Intelligence, dedicated to developing a computationally based understanding of human intelligence and establishing an engineering practice based on that understanding. These cues involve convergence and retinal disparity. Roco, W.S. To establish convergent validity, you need to show that measures that should be related are in reality related. Improve the capabilities of autonomous vehicles. 2011. Media Convergence. The program aims to foster a research community committed to advancing research and education in CPS and to transitioning CPS science and technology into engineering practice. Many of the entertainment examples, for instance, have to do with video, virtual reality and the Internet connecting and providing an altogether new experience. Our budget project was cited in a blog post by The Brookings Institution! Digitalization and integration of platforms, contents, and production processes in a global context are examined. Menon (2006) offers one final example of how convergence has been defined by focusing simply on the technological aspect of convergence. Also check our tips on how to write a research paper, see the lists of research paper topics, and browse research paper examples. See for example, [1-11]. Technology Convergence Examples: The Underlying Mechanism Many of the previous examples of convergence mentioned have come about because of technology convergence. A convergence between the life sciences, physical sciences, computer sciences, and engineering is driving research in Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). Password. A convergence between the life sciences, physical sciences, computer sciences, and engineering is driving research in Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). This work is being funded through NSF's Science and Technoly Center program. For example, the genetic code to a dangerous virus could lead to harm if it is available publicly. The goal of the CPS program is to develop the core system science needed to engineer complex cyber-physical systems that people can use or interact with and depend upon. Emergent Behavior of Integrated Cellular Systems, The major reports on convergence [1-6] discuss numerous examples of convergence, as well as describing future opportunities for convergent approaches to meet a variety of research challenges. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our research paper writing service and buy a paper on any topic at affordable price. If you are unsure what construct validity is, we recommend you first read: Construct validity.Convergent validity helps to establish construct validity when you use two different measurement procedures and research … OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN THE EMERGING FIELD OF SYNTHETIC BIOLOGYÃÂ, Roco MC 2002. Growing Convergence Research at the National Science Foundation (NSF) was identified in 2016 as one of 10 Big Ideas for Future NSF Investments.Convergence research is a means of solving vexing research problems, in particular, complex problems focusing on societal needs. Any data conveyed to you by this website is confidential and intended solely for the use of the individual or entity to whom it is assigned. NSF Science and Technology Centers (STC) Engineering, through its major components of mechanical, chemical, biomedical and electrical engineering, played a central role not only in developing the tools and creating nanoscale materials, devices and systems, but also energizing and coordinating the collaborative efforts across disciplines and fields of relevance. The types of synthesis design developed are, as yet, theoretical; they have not been tested on a large sample of reviews. A second IDEAS lab with a focus on Improving Photosynthesis was held in 2011 in collaboration with the British Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). Convergence Research Identity Provider. References. Science and technology convergence: with emphasis for nanotechnology-inspired convergence J Nanopart Res (2016) 18:211. Colorado State University’s Center for Multi-Scale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP)  is pioneering the use of multi-scale modeling in the study of atmospheric processes. An excellent way to see if a test is doing what it should is by seeing if it shows similarities to related assessments. 1. GCR solicitation NSF 19-551, Additional Resources SynBerc is a multi-institutional consortium with faculty members from UC-Berkeley, Stanford, Harvard, MIT, and UCS. Important challenges in a number of sectors are now being addressed by CPS research : NSF Investments in Cyber-Physical Systems Adding to these problems is the fact that government funding for research in the biomedical sector is supplied at a rate even lower than it was 15 years ago, and many grant-funding panels are not structured in a way that makes the viability of convergence-based research … A convergence among the life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering is driving the emerging field of synthetic biology, which aims to construct new biological entities and redesign existing ones. Roco, M.C., R.S. Technological convergence is the merging of technologies that allows us to access previously inaccessible technologies on one device. Credit: Janet Sinn-Hanlon, DesignGroup@VetMed for the Center for This report discusses details of current programs, how organizations have chosen to measure success, and what has worked and not worked in varied settings. Therefore, it is necessary to gain a better understanding of how reviews Convergence Research Client Website. There is also a convergence of CPS technologies and research thrusts that underpin Smart & Connected Communities and the Internet of Things. Convergence: Facilitating Transdisciplinary Integration of Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Engineering, and Beyond. This sample Convergence Theory Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. It entails integrating knowledge, methods, and expertise from different disciplines and forming novel frameworks to … Coherence and divergence of megatrends in science and engineering. AAAS REVIEW OF THE NSF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CENTERS INTEGRATIVE PARTNERSHIPS (STC) PROGRAM, 2000-2009. The energy and drive of the crowd takes over your own rationality, driving you into an irrational state. Caption: A new report, “Convergence: The Future of Health,” draws on insights from scientists and researchers across academia, industry, and government. Box 498892 Cincinnati, OH 45249-8892. firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 866.606.4023 Fax: 866.945.9369 The field of atmospheric science has traditionally been organized around three discretely separate scales of analysis: small scale (100 times smaller than the earth); medium scale- (earth scale); large scale-(whole atmosphere). The convergence theory in sociology would say that certain crowds are violent because the people who formed the crowd wanted to promote violence in the first place. Comments (0) Add to wishlist Delete from wishlist. On July 9-10, 2009, under the auspices of the National Academies, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Royal Society, an international symposium was held in Washington, DC to bring together the scientific, engineering, legal, and policy communities along with members of the public to explore the opportunities and challenges posed by synthetic biology . To help you understand more about this type of validity, here are 10+ convergent validity examples you can check out. The Center for Brains, Minds and Machines (CBMM)  is a Science and Technology Center focused on the interdisciplinary study of intelligence. Converging Knowledge, Technology and Society: Beyond Convergence of Nano-Bio- Info-Cognitive Technologies, edited by M.C. Through research groups called Collaboratories CBN scientists build synergistic inter-disciplinary partnerships among investigators using different models, technologies and approaches. The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) fosters interdisciplinary research at atomic and molecular levels for about 6,000 active awards with full or partial contents on nanoscale science and engineering (NSE). In the figure below, we see four measures (each is an item on a scale) that all purport to reflect the construct of self esteem. When a group of people forms in an emotionally charged situation, contagion theory states that if you join them, you will tend to become part of them and start to think similarly to the group. They promote scientific advances on complex research problems that benefit from a sustained interaction among disciplines, and they facilitate the formation of teams to address research challenges in areas of national priority. In 2012 the NSF began its participation in ERASynBio , an international initiative of funding agencies to promote the development of Synthetic Biology and to cultivate and coordinate national efforts and funding programs. develop the foundational understanding and technologies to build biological components and assemble them into integrated systems to accomplish many particular tasks; train a new cadre of engineers who will specialize in engineering biology; and, engage the public about the opportunities and challenges of engineering biology. Convergence is pleased to present our 2015 annual research insights into the Alternative Asset Management Industry. “Nanotechnology Research Directions”, National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), White House (WH), 230 pages, Washington, D.C.; Publ. Convergent validity and divergent validity are ways to assess the construct validity of a measurement procedure (Campbell & Fiske, 1959). When you see two objects, you can be able to see the distance. It is the closest to transdisciplinary research which was historically viewed as the pinnacle of evolutionary integration across disciplines.  Handbook of Science and Technology Convergence, Springer Reference, Berlin. It can make it harder for you to see the distance whenever you have retinal disparity. Frontier projects are designed to address CPS challenges that cannot be achieved by smaller efforts. Formed in 2006, the NSF Engineering Research Center SynBerc  uses synthetic biology to build the tools and technologies to address challenges in healthcare, energy, and the environment. This perspective stems from the pragmatic foundations for conducting mixed methods research where the notion of “what works” applies well to selecting the methods that “work” best to address a study’s problem and questions. It employs engineering design principles in the development of new functions or applications in areas such as health, energy, and the environment. Recently, another term – convergence research – is at the forefront of research opportunities coming out of a number of federal agencies. Funding opportunities This is the NSF’s contribution to the multiagency National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI, $1.5 billion in FY 2015) encompasses the systematic understanding, organization, manipulation, and control of matter at the atomic, molecular, and supramolecular levels in the size range of about 1 to 100 nanometers . To achieve this, we developed and continue to enhance a comprehensive, scalable, high quality process with best-in-class technology. 2011. The retinal disparity is the distance between two different objects. NSF Investments in Synthetic Biology Nanotechnology is a foundational, general purpose science and technology for all domains of knowledge and the economy dealing with matter, and for which a long-term vision (2000-2030)  for disciplines convergence, science-based nanosystems integration, and creation of new converging technology platforms was formulated in 1999-2000 [10-12]. research problem and questions is a key principle of mixed methods research design. Williams and P. Alivisatos, Eds., 1999. To help protect the lungs (blue) from this deadly process, bioengineers have created microscopic drug depots (red) to focus the effect of anti-cancer … The new world of discovery, invention, and innovation: convergence of knowledge, technology, and society. Convergence deals with the closeness of an object. Information hazard policy Potent research and development, such as research into AI, biotech, or x-risks, have risks of negative direct and indirect effects.  2016. J Nanopart Res 4:9-19, Roco MC and Bainbridge WS 2013. Convergence has a range of different research projects.  We will highlight a few here. Username. Biological machines call "bio-bots" are a fusion of biology and engineering. Nanotechnology Through a series of books and papers over the past 15 years, Roco, Bainbridge, and their collaborators have systematically documented the role of convergence in the development of new lines of inquiry along with future opportunities. CBN played a major role in the development of the field of behavioral neuroscience. They are powered by skeletal muscle cells controlled by electronic impulses. Convergence theory is an opposing theory to the contagion crowd behavior theory, which proposed that people tend to get caught up in the attitude and behavior of the crowd. They estimate the total US investment in Synthetic Biology during the period 2006- 2013 to be in excess of $600 million . For instance, Item 1 might be the statement “I feel good about myself” rated using a 1-to-5 Likert-type response format. The Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water with Systems (The WaterCAMPWS)  is a research and education center for increasing water supplies for human use through enhanced treatment technologies. Definition of Interest Convergence: People with power will support ideas that may serve others when there is some benefit for their own privilege embedded within. 2002. NRC (National Research Council). Convergence in distribution of a sequence of random variables. The examples listed below describe related but complementary exemplars of convergence. Industrial Internet: Pushing the Boundaries of Minds and Machines, NSF awards $13 million toward research in cyber-physical systems | NSF - National Science Foundation, The Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water with Systems, http://www.wtec.org/loyola/nano/IWGN.Research.Directions/, Proposal & Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG), MIT Washington Office. Supplement to the President’s Budget for the Fiscal year 2017: The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), Washington, D.C. Convergence Research, Inc. P.O. Collaborative projects between and among participants, rather than efforts limited to the research group of an individual participant, are the desired outcome. 2016. W. S. Bainbridge and M. C. Roco 2016. The program seeks to encourage a cross-disciplinary, more theory-driven science and to use synthetic biology approaches to probe fundamental questions in biology. Synthetic biology is a set of ideas, tools, and techniques integrating engineering and biology. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Available on, Roco, M.C., 2016, “Building foundational knowledge and infrastructure for nanotechnology: 2000-2030”, in, NSTC (National Science and Technology Council)/White House. The Center for Behavioral Neuroscience (CBN) is an interdisciplinary research consortium of seven institutions in Atlanta, Georgia (Georgia State University, Emory University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Morehouse School of Medicine, and the three schools in the Atlanta University Center: Clark Atlanta University, Morehouse College, and Spelman College). Quickly identify and overcome problems in manufacturing environments. This new program has in turn strengthened internal collaborative efforts at NSF between Engineering and programs in the Physical, Biological and Social, Behavioral & Economic Sciences. The Centers have proven to be an excellent mechanism to foster and develop convergent approaches. Our legacy will be a rich body of intellectual achievement, newly developed materials and engineered systems, and highly educated students, researchers, practitioners, and stakeholders in clean water, and to become the preeminent source of knowledge for advanced materials and systems in water purification.”  For example, biochemistry, nanoscience, and neuroscience all emerged as interdisciplinary fields that eventually grew to become their own disciplines. This division presents major challenges when trying to understand the role of clouds in climate simulation, because clouds are many times smaller than the grid cells used in the climate models. Assessing Convergent and Discriminant Validity Example The results of this study are intended to inform those who might support efforts to develop curricula and materials; faculty and university administrators; industries with needs for CPS workers; and current and potential students about intellectual foundations, workforce requirements, employment opportunities, and curricular needs . The goals of the Center are grounded in a belief that the challenges in increasing potable water supplies can be solved by focusing on the basic science of the aqueous interface, and developing advanced materials and systems that exploit the unique physics and chemistry at the interface. In addition, the Small Business Innovative Research and the Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) programs invited proposals with translational potential in synthetic biology. “Our core thesis is that by developing the human resources to study the science of the aqueous interface with new materials synthesis and characterization that are integrated into water treatment systems, The WaterCAMPWS will greatly advance water purification.  In CPS systems, the joint behavior of the “cyber” and “physical” elements of the system is critical - computing, control, sensing and networking can be deeply integrated into every component, and the actions of components and systems must be safe and interoperable. The examples in [1-3] contain a comprehensive discussion of the impact of convergence in the health sciences, while the examples in [4-6] are focused more on nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information technology. Bainbridge, B. Tonn and G. Whitesides, National Science Foundation/World Technology Evaluation Center report, Springer 2013, Boston (available on. The Third Revolution: The Convergence of the Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, and Engineering, MIT 2016. NSF (National Science Foundation). Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: NANOTECHNOLOGY, BIOTECHNOLOGY, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCE. The multi-scale approach has required the participation of researchers with many different areas of expertise, and has led to the creation of a new community of researchers. 2014. It is grounded in the belief that seminal contributions are most likely to emerge from collaborative efforts. Synthetic biology offers promise as a tool to address key challenges such as food security and sustainable energy. 2009. The Foundation’s primary investment in CPS is through the Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) Solicitation 17-529. NSF asked the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to study the topic, organize workshops, and prepare interim and final reports examining the need for and content of a CPS education. Convergence investigates examples of organizations that have established mechanisms to support convergent research. Multi-scale modeling of atmospheric processes created a new activity with the discipline of atmospheric sciences. , NAS. “The Long View of Nanotechnology Development: the National Nanotechnology Initiative at 10 years”, J. Nanoparticle Research, Vol. Synthetic Biology Any data conveyed to you by this website is confidential and intended solely for the use of the individual or entity to whom it is assigned. “Nanotechnology development has become an international scientific and technological endeavor with focused R&D programs in over 80 countries after the announcement of the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the United States in 2000. seek out further examples of media convergence in action, perhaps applying what follows to their scholarly background (be that arts, humanities, social science, or the This is the central concept of convergent validity. The concept of convergence in distribution is based on the … The Center adopted a novel convergence strategy that initially built upon the expertise of researchers in material science, mechanical engineering, and chemistry who are not part of the traditional water research community. (CBiRC) is developing the tools, components and materials needed to transform carbohydrate feedstocks into bio-based chemicals. NSF established the Science and Technology Research (STC) Centers Program in 1989 to help maintain U.S. preeminence in science and technology and ensure the requisite pool of scientists with the quality and breadth of experience required to meet the changing needs of science and society. Growing Convergence Research at the National Science Foundation (NSF) was identified in 2016 as one of 10 Big Ideas for Future NSF Investments. The media undertakes a vital function in the society. The Center employs a convergence approach in bringing together computer scientists, cognitive scientists, and neuroscientists to work in close collaboration. A historical summary of NSF investments in synthetic biology has been compiled by Dr. Susanne von Bodman, Program Director for the NSF Systems and Synthetic Biology program and Dr. Theresa Good, Deputy Division Director for the Division of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences. "Convergence is a broad rethinking of how all scientific research can be conducted, so that we capitalize on a range of knowledge bases, from microbiology to computer science to engineering design," MIT Institute Professor and Nobel Laureate Phillip Sharp, one … The new NSF-funded projects will develop technologies to: In these projects researchers from the computer science and engineering fields will partner with scholars in urban planning, materials science, music and other non-traditional domains to design solutions that can be applied to new environments and tasks. In 2012 the NSF Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology (MCB) instituted a new program in the area of Systems and Synthetic Biology (SSB). 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